A weight loss diet is a diet intended to lose weight. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is the basis of care. A point on the Mediterranean diet and hyperproteins.
Weight loss diets are of several kinds:
– the “balanced” and moderate caloric restriction which consists of a reduction of 600 kcal per day compared to the usual ration. According to some, it is she who has the best efficiency on weight because it reduces the weight of about 5 kg in one year.
– dietary changes without caloric restriction: reduction of fats, increase in fruits, cereals and vegetables. The effect is minimal but not negligible: 2 kg at one year.
– the Mediterranean diet, which has proven itself in terms of benefits in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It is proposed in hypercholesterolemic patients, when there is coronary disease.
– very low calorie diets: less than 800 to less than 600 kcal/d. They can be sources of deficiencies if they are prolonged. Sudden deaths have even been reported
– low-fat diets where lipids only represent 10 to 15% of intake (Dukan diet, for example). Its effectiveness is controversial.
– high-protein diets, low in carbohydrates (Atkins diet), but rich in fats and proteins, imposing no caloric restriction, but which increase satiety. They have a certain effectiveness and would even be, in the short term, slightly superior to other diets.
– therapeutic fasting in specialized clinics is increasingly practiced, particularly in Russia, Ukraine, Germany, Spain, Japan, USA, Canada, Thailand, India, Philippines.
Assessing the effectiveness of these different diets is tricky, because the published studies attempting to do so are “open” (the patient knows what type of diet he or she is on) and their interpretation is therefore susceptible to certain biases. Moreover, they are short-lived. In practice, dietary advice without support is moderately effective and limited in time (high probability of weight regain).
The Mediterranean diet
The Mediterranean diet gets its name from the fact that it is traditional in several countries around the Mediterranean Sea, including Crete.
It has been proven through several studies that the Cretan diet reduces mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases.
Some characteristics of this diet are found in certain regions of the south of France, and help to explain the French culinary paradox, but these are two notions that should not be confused.
The Mediterranean diet (also called the Cretan diet) is a dietary practice that combines:
– a relatively low calorie intake compared to the physical activity deployed, hence a lower risk of obesity
– an abundance of fresh vegetables and fruits, bread, cereals (basic energy intake), dried fruits
– in small quantities, products of animal origin: low consumption of red meat, except a little ovine meat, but high consumption of fish;
– lipids added in the almost exclusive form of olive oil, the main quality of which is its content of monounsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid (omega-9).
– a small amount of saturated fatty acids: very little milk and butter, but fresh cheeses or yogurts;
– finally red wine, consumed moderately and during meals: in moderate doses, alcohol is likely to increase HDL cholesterol; a protective effect more particularly linked to wine could come from resveratrol; the way of drinking wine, during meals, can also be one of the explanations for the possible superiority of wine over other sources of alcohol with regard to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Moderate consumption is around 1 glass per meal.
Another probable benefit of this diet is related to the way of eating, the pleasure of eating, the conviviality of meals, important moments of sociability, forgotten or neglected in a good part of Western countries. The “time to eat” is taken, which also contributes to good chewing and good digestion.
The high protein diet
The high protein diet is a weight loss diet based on the absorption of proteins as pure as possible. It is mainly intended for people who need to lose weight quickly for surgery. The weight loss is generally spectacular (up to 12 kilos per month). It is a very low calorie diet.
This diet aims to limit calorie intake while preventing muscle wasting due to insufficient protein. Meals are therefore made up of almost pure protein foods. It is therefore necessary to ingest 50 to 100 g of protein per day.
There are special high protein meal replacement powders commercially available for this diet.
Procedure of the plan:
Phase 1: active protein diet
During this phase, the dieter will feed exclusively on protein foods in sachets. It generally lasts 3 days and aims to trigger ketosis (transformation of fat into sugar). Normally, the feeling of hunger disappears.
Phase 2: selective protein diet
In this phase, protein food in sachets remains the basis of the diet at the beginning, but slow sugars (starches and cereals) are gradually reintroduced as well as poultry, fish, eggs, vegetables and dairy products at 0 %.
The goal is to continue weight loss while gradually moving from a hypocaloric, high-protein diet to a balanced diet that is less and less hypocaloric.
Phase 3: stabilization
The stabilization phase serves to avoid weight regain immediately after the diet. This is a specific diet because, after weight loss, the body tends to regain weight very easily.
Phase 4: dietary balance
At the end of the first 3 sentences, the subject must find a normal food balance in order not to gain weight.
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